Archive for: Art. 234 CPC

Trade mark law, case II GSK 425/09

May 7th, 2010, Tomasz Rychlicki

On 30 August 2004, the Polish Patent Office registered word-figurative trade mark Ravago R-154724 to Walter Breitengraser. The Polish company RESINEX Sp. z.o.o. submitted a request for invalidation of the right of protection, arguing that Mr Breitengraser has applied for the registration in violation of RESINEX personal and economic rights arising from the rights to the name Ravago and in violation of good customs. Resinex also claimed that the application for the disputed trade mark was made in bad faith because Walter Breitengraser was the president of the company acting as an agent for RESINEX.


The Patent Office invalidated the right of protection for Ravago R-154724 trade mark. The PPO followed the rule that in the event of a conflict between the right of protection for a trademark and personal right/interest, including the right to business/company name, the priority is to protect the personal interest. The PPO also pointed out that article 8 of the Paris Convention does not constitute independent grounds for the protection of trade names, and therefore a request for its protection must be dealt with under the provisions of national law. The PPO also noted that it is established rule in the legal doctrine and case law, that the registration of a trade mark, which is identical to a name of other company, that was used by this company prior the registration of a questioned trade mark, affects the personal interests of this company.

The complaint filed by Walter Breitengraser was rejected by the Voivodeship Administrative Court in Warsaw in a judgment of 4 November 2008, case file VI SA/Wa 1324/08.

The Supreme Administrative Court in a judgment of 23 February 2010, case file II GSK 425/09 rejected the cassation complaint and held that the presumption of good faith, as defined in article 7 of the Civil Code – CC – (in Polish: Kodeks Cywilny) of 23 April 1964, Journal of Laws (Dziennik Ustaw) No. 16, item 93, with subsequent amendments, is the presumption, to which the provisions of Article 234 of the Civil Proceedings Code – CPC (in Polish: Kodeks Postępowania Cywilnego) of 17 November 1964, published in Journal of Laws (Dziennik Ustaw) No. 43, item 296, with subsequent amendments, refers to. Under this provision, the presumption laid down by the law (legal presumption) binds the court and may be rebutted, however, whenever the law does not preclude this.

Article 7
If the Act makes the legal consequences dependent of good or bad faith, the existence of good faith is presumed.

This provision has the auxiliary use in all administrative and court-administrative proceedings. There is no rule of law that would exclude the possibility of presentation of the proof of the existence of bad faith.